How to Dye Your Own Fabrics – Dyes and Chemicals

When I dye my own fabrics, I use Procion MX dyes, which I find really easy to use. If you’ve never dyed before, here’s some info on the dyes and chemicals you’ll need to get started.

The Dyes

Procion MX fibre reactive dyes are synthetic dyes that are intended for use with natural plant-based or cellulose fibres. They are easy to use, easy to mix and provided a range of light-fast, clear bright colours. They are available from suppliers around the world and come in a range of great colours.

dye close up

The best thing about them though, in my opinion, is that with just three primary colours – red yellow and blue (and black!) you can make a whole range of beautiful shades. Of course, these primaries also come in various forms. Those that are not mixed with other colours will produce the purest shades.

Red can be cerise, intense red, scarlet and magenta

Red can be cerise, intense red, scarlet and magenta

Blue can be royal, navy, cobalt and cerulean

Blue can be royal, navy, cobalt and cerulean

Yellow can be acid, golden and marigold

Yellow can be acid, golden and marigold

So by just sticking to these three primaries, in their particular variations, you will never run out of new combinations to discover!

Varying Primary Colours

Varying Primary Colours

Letters and Number s of Procion MX Dyes

When you go to your dye supplier to purchase your first selection of dyes, you will be faced with a dizzying array of letters and numbers which signify the properties of each dye. Each dye name usually comprises:

  • The brand name – Procion for example.
  • A colour name – Golden yellow or Cerulean Blue
  • A prefix which signifies the type of dye – MX stands for Dichloritriazine
  • A dash.
  • An optional number – indicates how much more of a colour is in a dye. For example 8B is bluer than 5B.
  • A letter, usually, G, R or B. These signify the following German colour names:

o    Gelb for Yellow

o    Rot for Red

o    Blau for Blue

Sometimes a dye may just have a letter after the dash rather than a number and a letter. Examples of these are Blue MX-R, which, by virtue of the red component, may have a purplish cast and Blue MX-G which, by virtue of the yellow may appear slightly green.

If you intend to purchase all your dyes from the same supplier, you will soon get to recognize the various colour names which are associated with the various codes and will be able to order by name. If you buy from various suppliers, you may find that different suppliers call dyes of a particular code by a different colour name than your previous supplier. In this case, it is better to order those dyes you require by code rather than name to ensure you get the colour you are expecting.

Chemicals

There are a wide range of chemicals on the market which can be used in dyeing. I only use two, Synthrapol, a strong detergent, and Soda Ash, a dye fixative. Many home dyers also use urea in their work. This is a wetting agent which can help your fabric absorb more dye and it can be useful in very dry climates. As I live in the UK, with its constantly changing climate and plentiful rainfall, I have never had any need of urea.

Synthrapol

Synthrapol is a strong, non-alkaline detergent which is readily available from dye suppliers. It is very useful for washing fabric that is not PFD(Prepared for Dyeing and Printing) as it will remove any sizing or other treatments that the fabric may have been subjected to. It is also incredibly useful for washing your fabric after dyeing and rinsing as it gets rid of any loose dye particles which have not bonded with the fibres. This will prevent bleeding in the future and boost colour-fastness.

Soda Ash

Soda Ash is used as a dye fixative in that it helps the dye molecules permanently bond to the fibres during the curing (or batching) process. It is available from dye suppliers and I had been buying it for some years, at considerable expense, in 5KG tubs, until my kindly dye advisor told me that I could use washing soda instead. It is just as effective, available at my local supermarket, and considerably cheaper.

This post is an excerpt from my new eBook ‘How to Dye Your Own Fabric’. If you’d like to get the book for yourself I’ve given you the link below:

http://www.amazon.com/How-Dye-Your-Own-Fabric-ebook/dp/B00K5VCUAW/ref=sr_1_6?s=digital-text&ie=UTF8&qid=1399575598&sr=1-6&keywords=dyeing+fabric

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How To Dye Your Own Fabrics – Why I Dye

Why Do I Dye?

I have been teaching machine sewing for over twelve years and have been dyeing my own fabrics for most of that time, both for my students and for my own creations.

Margo_bookshelflarge-200

My nearest, decent, fabric shop is an hour’s train ride away. They sell a wide selection of plain and printed fabrics in most of the well-known ranges, but often I cannot find exactly what I want. This is no reflection on the shop, but since I have discovered fabric dyeing, shop-bought fabrics seem pale and uninteresting. They just cannot deliver the zing that my home-produced, procion-dyed fabrics can.

The variety and intensity of the coloured fabrics you can produce are entirely under your control.

Wall hanging for the local Brickworks Museum shop

Wall hanging for the local Brickworks Museum shop

A Whole New World of Colour

When you visit a fabric shop, or even buy on-line, your choice is limited to whatever is on offer. But once you get the hang of dyeing, you can create whatever colour you want and even a good many that you didn’t want – at first…

One of the most exciting things about dyeing is the element of surprise. When you’re not in need of any particular colour and you just allow yourself to experiment, you will be amazed at what you can come up with. Some pieces you may not like at all, but you can change them. If you’re using a good quality fabric – and we’ll get to that in a minute – you can overdye any that are not quite your thing, until they’re just right.

A Safe and Easy Process

Dyeing is not difficult. There are chemicals involved, and a fair amount of mess, but with a bit of care and attention to detail, home dyeing is easily achievable by almost anyone. Very little specialist equipment is required and you probably have most of the general equipment already. Anything you don’t have can usually be picked up cheaply at a supermarket or discount store.

Economy

Commercially-dyed and printed fabrics are expensive and, as long as labour prices in the Far East continue to rise, the price will keep on rising. High quality mercerized cotton fabric, ready prepared for dyeing and printing (PFD), if you buy it in lengths of at least 10 yards (or metres), can work out at less than half the price, per metre, than commercial fabrics. And it is usually 60” wide; instead of the traditional 45” width of those you buy.

I buy my dyeing fabric, in 60m bolts, from a former mill town in the North of England. I am not under any misapprehension that it is woven there any longer, but it is heartening to be able to buy it in the same country!

Initial outlay for dyes and chemicals, can be quite expensive, but you need only three basic primary colours to begin with, and black. I say begin with, but I have been dyeing for over five years now and still only buy basic primaries and black. I may buy a different shade of primary occasionally to mix things up a bit, but I still prefer to experiment with mixing my own colours rather than buy ready-mixed.

The Procion dyes I buy are very economical and a little goes a long way, as you will find when you start to clean up after a dye session.

All the other equipment you will need is cheap and readily available, if indeed, you don’t have it already.

So give dyeing a go – you’ll love it!

This post is an excerpt from my new eBook ‘How to Dye Your Own Fabric’. If you’d like to get the book for yourself I’ve given you the link below:

http://www.amazon.com/How-Dye-Your-Own-Fabric-ebook/dp/B00K5VCUAW/ref=sr_1_6?s=digital-text&ie=UTF8&qid=1399575598&sr=1-6&keywords=dyeing+fabric

 

How to Dye Your Own Fabric – Types of Fabric

Fabrics for Dyeing

The success or failure of any dyeing project depends largely on the fabric you choose. Fabrics come in a huge range of weights, constructions and compositions and it is very important to choose one which will give the best possible results for your project. Not only will this prevent you having to go back and repeat the whole process again but it will be a huge boost to your confidence in your ability to dye your own fabrics.

Fabric Construction

First, let’s talk a little about how fabrics are constructed and why some are suitable for dyeing and some aren’t.

Fabric generally falls into three types: woven. non-woven and knit.

Woven Fabrics

Woven fabric is the most commonly used for home dyeing. It is formed from two sets of threads, the warp, which runs lengthwise, and the weft, which runs widthways. Woven fabrics are available in simple or complex weaves. Simple weaves can be muslin, denim and some types of sheeting while complex weaves can be corduroy or towelling.

Examples of Woven Fabrics

Examples of Woven Fabrics

Non-Woven Fabrics

Non-woven fabric is generally defined as a set of threads or filaments which are entangled, by some mechanical means, and then bonded thermally or chemically. They are commonly made with by-products from the plastics and oil and petrochemical industries and are used for making very specific products. These can include single use, bacteria-resistant products for hospitals and schools, tea-bags and packaging. Non-woven fabric can be made with some recycled materials and does not require the raw materials to be turned into yarn before construction, so it considered to be quite ecologically friendly – but not great for dyeing.

Knit Fabrics

Knit fabrics can be divided into two types, warp knits such as tricot, which are generally used for t-shirts, and weft knits, which are generally hand or machine-knitted. The main difference between the two is that weft knits unravel when cut but warp knits, while they may fray a little, don’t unravel.

Examples of hand-knitted fabrics

Examples of hand-knitted fabrics

Knit fabrics can be dyed providing they are made from plant-based fibre such as cotton, rayon or hemp, or protein fibres such as wool, alpaca or mohair.

Get the Book

This post is taken from my new eBook ‘How to Dye Your Own Fabric’. If you’d like to get the book for yourself I’ve given you the link below:

http://www.amazon.com/How-Dye-Your-Own-Fabric-ebook/dp/B00K5VCUAW/ref=sr_1_6?s=digital-text&ie=UTF8&qid=1399575598&sr=1-6&keywords=dyeing+fabric

How to Get Started in Free-Machine Embroidery – Laundry Bag Project

In this post I’d like to share one of my favorite projects with you – a stylish and useful laundry bag. This project is great for practicing applique and free machine embroidery and, if you customize it with your family’s names – you might even get them to put their laundry in it!

Laundry bag1

Make this fun laundry bag in any colour or size you want. If you want to make one for everyone in the family, why not personalise it with their names?

Washday Laundry Bag

 You Will Need

1/2m strong cotton fabric

Fabric scraps for washing appliqué

Fusible web for washing appliqué

Machine embroidery and polyester thread in black

2m cotton cord

Embroidery hoop

Hand-Dyed Fabrics

A range of hand-dyed cotton fabrics are available from www.time4me-workshops.co.uk/shop.

Machine Setup

All seam allowances are 1/2” (1.25 cm) unless stated otherwise.

A 2.5mm stitch length is used throughout except for the addition of appliqué images.

A standard zigzag foot is used throughout unless otherwise stated.

To Make Your Laundry Bag

Cut Your Pattern Pieces

1        From the cotton fabric, cut 2 x rectangles 19” (48cm) x 16” (41cm).

2       From the remaining cotton fabric, cut 2 x strips 2” x 20”.

Appliqué your Front Panel

3       Choose one of the rectangles to be the front panel and lay it on a flat surface with one of the shortest edges at the bottom.

4       Measure 8” from the bottom edge of each long (19”) side and mark these points.

Marking position of washing line

5       Using a dressmaker’s curve or curved ruler and some tailor’s chalk, draw a curved line between these points. This will be the position of the washing line.

6       On the paper side of your fusible web, draw an assortment of clothing or soft toys you might find on your washing line. These do not have to be artistically correct – have fun!

7        Roughly cut out each shape.

Note: If the recipient has a favorite toy, pyjamas or t-shirt, you could make one, or two, of the pieces a similar shape and color.

8       Choose the colors of your washing items from your fabric scraps and iron each piece.

9       Referring to the instructions for the brand of fusible web you are using, fuse each clothing shape onto the wrong side of your chosen fabrics and carefully cut out.

10   Arrange your washing with the top edges just slightly below the curved line until you are happy with it.

Placing washing items on line

11     Fuse in place.

12    Refer to your machine instruction manual and set your machine up for machine embroidery, fit an embroidery or darning foot and thread the top with black embroidery thread and the bobbin with black polyester thread.

13    Hoop your fabric, so a number of complete washing items are encircled (this will depend on the size of your hoop). Ensure your appliqué is on the recessed side of the hoop.

Hooping the washing items ready to embroider

14   Embroider around each article of clothing, adding details as required.

Embroidering washing items

15    Add pegs to each clothing item or toy.

16   Refer to your instruction manual and set your sewing machine for normal stitching. Fit a standard straight stitch/zigzag foot to your machine and using a 3mm length straight stitch, stitch several times over the line marked earlier for the position of the washing line.

Add your Writing

17    Using a ruler and tailor’s chalk, draw a straight line connecting the two ends of the washing line.

18   Mark the central point of the line and from this point, draw a box 7” x 3”, so the bottom 7” edge of the box rests on the line. Your embroidered word, whatever you have chosen, should fit inside this box, but if you are using a longer name or several words you may need to increase the size of the box accordingly (and the size of your hoop!).

Marking position of writing box on laundry bag

19   Now, on a sheet of paper, draw out the 7” x 3” box and write the word you are intending to embroider inside in a neat copperplate. Try to ensure there is an equal amount of space above and below the word.

20  Once you are happy with your word, trace over it a number of times with your finger as described in the previous section.

21    Place your front panel in the hoop, centralising the box as accurately as possible.

22   Set your machine for free machine embroidery as before, and embroider your word. Don’t worry if you go off a little here and there, this will only add a little homemade charm!

Embroidered Laundry bag word

Assemble your Laundry Bag

23   Place the bag front and back panels right sides together and pin round the two sides and the bottom.

24  Set your sewing machine for a 2.5mm straight stitch and stitch round the three sides.

25   Diagonally clip the two bottom corners.

26  Press open the side seams.

27   Turn over ¼” all round the top of the bag and press.

28  Turn over another ¾” and press again.

29  Place some pins at 90 degrees around the top of the bag and stitch close to the lower fold. Turn the bag right way out, pushing out the corners.

30  Now stitch together the two 2” strips along one of their short ends and press the seam open. Trim the length of the strip to 32”. This strip will be your cord casing.

31    Turn in ½” on each short edge of the strip and press.

32   Turn in ¼” on each long edge of the strip and press.

33   Using tailor’s chalk, mark a line 2” below the top edge, all the way round the bag.

34  Starting at the right hand side seam (with the front panel facing you) pin the pressed strip, with the raw edges facing the bag, all round the bag, finishing back at the side seam. Try and place the seam, in the pressed strip, at the rear of the bag.

Placing of cord casing on laundry bag

35   Stitch all round both long edges of the cord casing about 1/8” from the edge, working a few reverse stitches at the beginning and end of each seam to secure.

36  Apply a piece of sticky tape to each end of your cotton cord to prevent fraying while threading it through the casing.

37   Using a large safety pin, fastened to one end of the cord, thread it through the casing and knot the ends together securely. Remove the tape as fraying is limited by the position of the knot.

The bag looks better filled, so get your family to fill it with their laundry!

This project is from my eBook ‘How to Get Started in Machine Embroidery’. If you’d like to buy the book, which has all the instructions you’ll ever need for free machine embroidery as well as more projects and ideas, Here’s the link:

http://www.amazon.com/How-Get-Started-Free-Machine-Embroidery-ebook/dp/B00HHCTPW8/ref=sr_1_1?s=digital-text&ie=UTF8&qid=1392897303&sr=1-1&keywords=how+to+get+started+in+free-machine+embroidery

Bag Worship from the Old to the New

I love bags. Or to be more precise – I love making bags. I look on them as a portable canvas to display my ideas and inspirations. But they are not just ornamental as a wall hanging would be, but useful too.

Here are a few that I’ve made. The first one is a recent make put together after a shopping trip in Chichester where I saw some lovely soft leather bags made of off-cuts arranges in a tessalated pattern. But this one is made in my hand dyed fabrics from the ‘Brights’ range using Cerulean Blue, Acid Lemon and Magenta.

Tessalated Bag in Bright hand dyed fabrics

 

This bag has boxed corners and a blue lining and says – no shouts – summer to me – a phenomenon that is at last happening in the UK after the deluges of April!

The next bag is one made several years ago when my dyeing skills were still in their infancy. I used calico for everything and could only afford the basic primaries. But I loved freearm embroidery and covering all my projects in fanciful images of fruit and veg. I had the idea that I might ask our local fruit shop to sell them but didn’t think that the customers would pay more for the bag than the merchandise so chickened out and kept them for myself.

I have many more ideas for bags from the buildings of British towns that I am so fond of to the drawings of Wildlife illustrator, Charley Harper to the Traction engines that surround me in my Brickworks studio. I love to make and I love to share those makes and ideas.

Watch this space!

Bug Stops Play

Here I am, back again after almost a fortnight flat on my back with only that nasty little blighter, the Campylobacter bacteria for company. Picked up at a local eatery that griddles raw chicken and and makes cold sandwiches in way too small an area resulting in – food poisoning…

But I am back on my feet now – if still a little nauseous – and am keen to get back to making. As I’m not fit enough to start my classes again, I’ve been trying out a few little things at home.

The drawings of Ptolemy Dean, British Architect and erstwhile presenter of the BBC’s   Restoration programme, have long been an inspiration to me for their potential to be recreated in hand-dyed fabrics and machine embroidery. As most of my materials were at my brickworks studio, I had to make do with some watercolour paper and paints blagged off my other – painterly – half.

Here’s the result:

Not something I’d tried before – embroidering onto 140lb watercolour paper – but it was great fun – give it a go if you get the time.

Use a good polyester on the bobbin and a good quality rayon embroidery thread on top. Back off the top tension to between 1 and 1.5 (depending on machine – my Bernina 830 gets all sniffy if I try to take the tension any lower than 1.5 but you all know your own machines).

Mix up a few basic watercolours and daub (that’s the only term that can be applied to my painting skills!) a few loose blocks of colour over the areas you want to shade. Don’t worry about getting it all in, you can add more between stitchings.

Now if you’re impatient for results – like me – you will need to dry your painting with a hairdryer before stitching or the stitching will just disappear into the paper.

Now stitch, keeping the lines loose and wavy and just having a good time. The great thing about stitching on thick paper is it stays rigid and doesn’t buckle and get caught up underneath.

Add more painting and stitching as you need it – you’ll know when it’s done!